I am attaching two interesting evaluation studies on MNREGS from a gender lens. The first is by Pankaj and Tanka. They argue that women's empowerment effects are visible where enough wage employment has been generated per women. In such instances changes are visible at the intra-household level gender dynamics, income-consumption effects. Empowerment at collective level- including through articulating gender specific works and choices-requires collectivisation of workers which was largely absent
The second study by Vasuki et al locates MNREGS in the context of political economy of four states, and argues that there are systematic exclusions of Dalits, single women and elderly from the MNREGS. Work sites reflect a caste and gender hierarchy with a caste and gender division of labour existing. Minimum wages do not always accrue. Child care facilities are absent in most sites, and in some sites caste biases in distribution of water exist. Works that develop the land of SCs/STs are to take place, but at times they benefit the upper castes. Single women's land needs to be prioritised for land development in the same manner as Dalits/Tribals. Inspite of these limitations, gender relations are changing within the household. Long paper (95 pages) but interesting.
With warm regards
Add a Comment