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Forum Italicum: A Journal of Italian Studies, SAGE Publications

Silberman School of Social Work/Hunter College MEAL Team Publication, May 2024

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Ranjani K.Murthy's Blog (58)

Locating gender equality in evaluations: Choosing pathways

Since the popularity emergence of gender and development approach in the late 1980s, there have been debates on where and how to locate gender equality in evaluations.

At one end, most multi-lateral development banks do not have a separate evaluation criterion on gender equality. The focus is on relevance, effectiveness,…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on May 21, 2024 at 15:46 — No Comments

Looking back and looking ahead: Reflections on three decades of gender and development

Looking back and looking ahead: Reflections on three decades of gender and development…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on January 2, 2024 at 14:39 — No Comments

Expanding reach-benefit-empowerment and gender transformation framework

The CGIAR's Reach Benefit Empowerment and Transformation (RBET) distinguishes between approaches "that reach women participants, such as by including them in program activities; those that benefit women, by improving their circumstances in some way; those…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on October 9, 2023 at 16:46 — No Comments

Intersectional, inter-sectoral and development focus: Why they matter to gender transformative evaluations

Increasingly there is focus on "women" and "men" as analytical categories in gender transformative evaluations. This is necessary, but is it adequate?  The answer is "No" 

Women are far from uniform. One woman may progress at the expense of the other, like in the case of women from small farming household receiving support for mechanized harvesters which displace women form households without land. 

While the project may be with regard to agriculture, unless she has access to…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on September 28, 2023 at 15:30 — No Comments

Addressing Intersectionality in Evaluations: From Buzz Word to Institutionalisation


This presentation of Ranjani K Murthy with Children Believe India in Evaluation Conclave 2022 argues that intersectionality needs to move beyond being a buzz word in evaluations; and be…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on October 18, 2022 at 11:00 — 1 Comment

Disjointed lines: Implementation history and development evaluations

Development evaluations take place in a historical context. Many interventions have in the past been initiated by government and other development organisations in a village (or urban low income settlement) when evaluations of a NGO project is commissioned in the "now". A key question is how to delineate impact of past interventions by other organisations on present…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on September 6, 2022 at 15:44 — 1 Comment

Intersectional lens to development indices

Since the 1990s, development is measured not just by economic growth, but also human development index, gender development index, gender empowerment measure, gender inequality index, global gender gap index and so on. However discrimination in its various forms continues, and apart from economic and gender discrimination few measure of other forms of…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on August 9, 2022 at 12:54 — 1 Comment

Deepening SDG 5 monitoring from an intersectional lens

Ranjani K Murthy

Examining the SDG 5 tracker ( after a field visit and interviews with women/girls and men/boys from economically and socially discriminated groups in the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India, I felt the urgent need for strengthening monitoring mechanisms for tracking SDG 5 from a gender and intersectionality lens- without which it…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on May 28, 2022 at 8:55 — 3 Comments

Context analysis of evaluation reports from a gender, intersectionality and rights lens

In an earlier blog (, I argued the need to shift from gender and development (GAD) to gender, intersectionality, rights and development (GIRD) approach if SDG5 are to be achieved by 2030, and if the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on April 5, 2022 at 15:00 — 4 Comments

From Gender and Development to Gender, intersectionality, rights and development- From GAD to GIRD



The prelude: Gender and development approach

Gender and Development emerged as an approach to examine and address women’s development in the late 1980s.  In her seminal article Gender Planning in the Third World, Caroline Moser[1] argued that the Gender and Development approach (GAD) approach conceptualised that women were not the problem, but the socially constructed…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on February 4, 2022 at 13:02 — 2 Comments

Gender transformative evaluations: Negotiating power, intersectionalities, contexts, and accountability


Gender transformative evaluations: Negotiating power, intersectionalities, contexts, and accountability

Ranjani K Murthy, Anweshaa Ghosh and Ayesha Dutta, 2021



Development evaluations take place within social hierarchies and can both reflect and challenge these hierarchies. In this discussion paper the authors reflect on their experiences in facilitating gender transformative…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on September 30, 2021 at 12:00 — No Comments


Ranjani K Murthy, Vasantha R., Assumpta P., Gilbert Rodrigo and monitoring team, 2021

The grassroots NGO Gandhian Unit for Integrated Development Education (GUIDE)- a women’s rights organisation with vision of empowering women- received support from Women Fund Asia for facilitating a study on monitoring progress on Beijing+25 in two southern states Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. The monitoring process was both desk/statistics based and based on marginalised women’s monitoring of progress…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on August 19, 2021 at 14:02 — 1 Comment

Monitoring, Evaluating and Furtheirng Progress on Gender and Economic Equality and Women's Economic Empowerment

This paper, authored by me and supported by the Institute of Social Studies Trust, New Delhi…

Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on August 9, 2021 at 10:30 — No Comments

Gender, diversity and evaluations during COVID-19: Lessons from India

During COVID-19 I was involved in three evaluations, one in South India (face to face) and one additionally covering parts of north- west India (online).   The evaluations were of projects/programs on livelihood development and women's economic empowerment. These were carried out in the first phase of COVID-19 which was not so severe. 

The lessons on challenges posed by gender and diversity in face to face interactions during evaluations during COVID-19 were the…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on August 5, 2021 at 13:57 — No Comments

Empowerment, identities and processes: Arunthathiyar SHG member as Anganwadi worker

  • Ranjani K Murthy with Arogya Agam

Photo credit: Arogya Agam

This case study from an evaluation with highlights the complexity of women's empowerment. Researchers distinguish between individual (power to), interpersonal, collective agency (power with) and attitudinal change (power within) towards structural…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on August 25, 2020 at 13:00 — 1 Comment

Gender, Caste and SHGs in the context of neoliberal micro finance

1.0 Context:   Dalit women are discriminated against by intersections of caste, class and gender. Amongst Dalit women in Tamil Nadu, Arunthathiyars (AR) are the most exploited and steeped in poverty. Arunthathiyar women and men have no agriculture land, own limited livestock, are typically underemployed, and…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on August 1, 2020 at 13:00 — 2 Comments

Evaluating pre-COVID 19 programmes in post COVID times: Why development paradigms matter

Recently I was asked whether I would evaluation a programme in multiple states of India which was framed in pre COVID 19 times.  The criteria suggested was the DAC criteria - relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and others (includes gender equality, sustainability, innovation).

To me it seemed important to add another criterion- resilience.  How far had the programme strengthened resilience to such medical disasters and its consequences for migrants and informal sector?  To me…


Added by Ranjani K.Murthy on May 25, 2020 at 16:57 — 1 Comment

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